Agroindustry



The development or growth of farm industry poses a problem for the environment because of accumulated farm waste. However, farm waste is another source of material that can be used to produce biogas. Pollutants produced from the decomposition of animal manure are BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), pathogens, water pollution, dust and odor pollution. In many developing countries, farm waste, agricultural waste, and wood are used as fuel. This is the matter to be concerned because the emission of methane and carbon dioxide can cause glass house effects and can affect global climate change.

However, the villagers still use the conventional way i.e. they are still using a bio-digester which in its usage high precision and intensive management are needed. It is different if compared to the use of modern equipment, which can directly take methane gas in the cattle dung.

The use of bio-digester has some drawbacks, in which the biogas produced is often not as what is expected. It is caused by several things, such as:

  1. There is a possibility of O2 entering the digester which causes a decrease in methane production.
  2. Errors in the addition of material containing carbon and nitrogen, which is not in accordance with the proper ratio of C / N
  3. Fermentation bacteria require some specific nutritional ingredients and a bit of metal. The shortage on one nutrient or metal materials which are needed can reduce methane production process.

Although cow dung can be used as a fuel that will never run out and as manure which is beneficial to add to the soil nutrients needed by plants, there are some problems that occur as follows :

  1. Decreasing cattle population. If the cow population as the producer of raw materials of biogas and manure decreases, the manure and biogas production will also decrease.
  2. In the dry season, grasses and other plants will be difficult to grow and thrive due to lack of water to dissolve the salt minerals to be absorbed by plants. Therefore, the quantity of the grass will be extremely reduced which will cause difficulties for dairy farmers to feed cows or other livestock. In this case, fodder technology is very necessary to provide sufficient fodder substance despite the absence of the grass. One of the fodder technologies applied is the fermentation of rice straw. The animal digestibility on the rice straw is longer than on the grasses; it can be used for backup to make the fodder more efficient. In addition, rice straw is also good as energy enhancer for cattle or goats. However, although the rice straw is rich in carbohydrates, it lacks of supply for other nutrients. Thus, if the farmers continue to give rice straw to their livestock, the animals are going to suffer from nutritional deficiencies. Although it is difficult to get the rice straw as well as the grasses in dry season, rice straw can be fermented in rainy season so that it is durable and does not rot.
  3. In Poncosari village, other than its usage as biogas, cow dung is also used as manure. Once it is fermented, methane gas from the manure will be used as biogas and the solid waste that does not contain methane gas can be recycled into manure that fertilizes the soil. With the maximum processing, livestock manure is expected to be utilized continuously to the maximum.
  4. Plants produce brown waste that can be processed into useful fertilizer for enriching nutrients in the soil. The residents’ habits to burn the brown waste because they reduce the aesthetic value is expected to be removed and replaced with new habits of processing the brown waste into useful compost.

In the field of fisheries, Poncosari villagers still use the ponds limitedly as the place for freshwater fish farming. Thus, the result is not much while the demand for fish is increasingly rising day after day. Thus, in the future, the villagers are expected to be able to use their yard as a place for freshwater fish farming so that they can increase their daily income. In addition, the shrimp farms production in coastal areas began to decline.

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